SELECTED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON LANGUAGE MINORITY ASSESSMENT
SELECTED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON
LANGUAGE MINORITY ASSESSMENT
Ascher, C. "Testing Bilingual Students: Do We Speak
the Same Language?" PTA Today (March 1991, pp. 7-9).
Discusses cultural and linguistic bias issues in bilingual
testing, options for administering tests to bilingual students,
and problems associated with these options. Includes a short
description of an alternative, "dynamic assessment."
Ascher, C. Assessing Bilingual Students for Placement
and Instruction (ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, #65,
Explains the difficulty of assessing a bilingual student's
dominant language and the influence of one language on another,
as well as effects of this influence on educational and psychological
assessment. Discusses misdiagnosis due to linguistic bias in
tests. Notes distinction between language competence and communicative
competence, and briefly presents dynamic assessment as an alternative
to standardized tests.
Baca, L. & Cervantes, H.T. The Bilingual Special
Education Interface (Columbus, OH: Merrill, 1989).
Primarily focuses on major needs of LEP** exceptional children.
Provides models, curriculum, and strategies for diagnosing and
educating these children. Chapter 7 deals with language assessment,
and Chapter 8 with assessment procedures. These chapters cover
criteria for selecting standardized tests for LEP exceptional
children, effects of testing these children in English, and appropriate
methods for assessing language proficiency.
Baker, K. & Rossell, C. "An Implementation
Problem: Specifying the Target Group for Bilingual Education."
Educational Policy (Vol. 1, #2, pp. 249-270, 1987).
Describes problem that bilingual children who need transitional
bilingual education are not being correctly identified. Reviews
federal court decisions, laws, and regulations pertaining to
placement in bilingual education. Finds arbitrary use of tests
and noncompliance with federal regulations. Discusses problems
of misclassification and mentions low socioeconomic status as
a factor contributing to misclassification.
Bilingual Education Office, California Department of Education.
Assessing Students in Bilingual Contexts: Provisional Guidelines
(Sacramento, CA: Author, 1994).
Guidelines for student testing and assessment follow many
of the recommendations made by critics of using standardized
tests with LEP** students, such as assessing students in both
languages, not using translated tests, and separately developing
assessments for LEP students. Calls for not exempting LEP students
from regular assessment, improved staff development for teachers,
and better communication with parents about the value of assessment
in two languages.
Bilingual Special Education Perspective
(Newsletter available from University of Texas, Department of
Special Education, Ed. Bldg. #306, Austin, TX 78712-1290).
Biannual newsletter includes regular discussions of the role
of assessment in bilingual special education, plus book reviews
and research reports.
California Learning Record (Spanish forms). (El Cajon,
CA: Center for Language in Learning, 1994). Order from 10610 Quail
Canyon Rd., El Cajon, CA 92021; 619-443-6320.
Integrates instruction and assessment of literacy from a whole
language perspective. Adapted from the Primary Language Record,
which was developed for use with multilingual school populations.
The CLR provides handbooks for teachers in grades K-6 and 6-12,
forms for documenting student learning, and scales and directions
for evaluation and gauging student progress. The forms and scales
are now available in Spanish, making them more useful in classrooms
in which Spanish is spoken and for working with Spanish-speaking
Canales, J. "Innovative Practices in the Identification
of LEP Students." In Focus on Evaluation (Volume 2,
1992) [see below].
Describes current practices in various states to identify
LEP** students. Provides a review of the literature of recommended
practices used in classifying LEP children. Offers an alternative
sociolinguistic model involving data collection in three areas:
oral language proficiency, social data, and academic data.
Carpenter, L.J. Bilingual Special Education: An Overview
of Issues (National Center for Bilingual Research, Los Alamitos,
CA, Aug. 1983).*
Explains legal bases in special and bilingual education, defines
the population served by bilingual special education, and gives
estimates of the number of children that fit into this category.
Describes instruments used for assessing language dominance and
proficiency. Discusses the nature of the interaction between
tests and cultural and linguistic differences. Cites future research
Chavers, D. & Locke, P. The Effects of Testing
on Native Americans (Paper for the National Commission on
Testing and Public Policy, 1989). Obtain from Native American
Scholarship Fund, 3620 Wyoming Blvd., NE, Suite 208-C, Albuquerque,
NM 87111; $3.00.
Gives background on Native populations and languages in the
U.S. Discusses problems of using tests normed on majority populations
and how tests contribute to educational and social problems for
American Indian students.
Cheng, L. "The Identification of Communicative
Disorders in Asian-Pacific Students." Journal of Childhood
Communication Disorders (Vol. 13, #1, pp. 113-19, 1990).
Proposes and describes a new type of assessment for use with
Asian-Pacific students to assess communicative disorders. Called
"ethnographic assessment," this alternative to standardized
language proficiency tests allows the student to demonstrate
genuine communication in a natural environment for diagnostic
Clements, B. Limited English Proficiency: Recommendations
for Improving the Assessment and Monitoring of Students (Washington,
DC: Council of Chief State School Officers, 1992).
Outlines recommended practices for assessment in educational
programs for students with limited English proficiency. Draws
policy implications at federal and state levels.
Cummins, J. "Tests, Achievement, and Bilingual
Students." Focus (National Clearinghouse of Bilingual
Education, #9, Feb 1982).*
Explains problem of misusing test scores for diagnosis and
labeling due to cultural and linguistic biases of tests. Describes
common misconceptions about how to best educate and assess bilingual
students, defines "context-embedded" v. "context-reduced"
language proficiency, and presents a continuum showing the relationship
between language proficiency and academic achievement.
Damico, J. "Performance Assessment of Language
Minority Students." In Focus on Evaluation (Volume
1, 1992) [see below].
Concludes that performance assessment of language minority
students ought to target and evaluate true linguistic performance.
Explains difficulties in the process. Suggests a more descriptive
performance assessment approach, allowing emphasis on authentic
DelVeechio, A; Guerrero, M; Gustke, C; Martinez, P; Navarrete,
C; Nelson, C; Wilde, J. Whole School Bilingual Education
Program: Implications for Sound Assessment. (Washington, DC:
National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1994).
Represents an effort to assist bilingual educators in responding
to Goals 2000 and Title I and Title VII of the 1994 Elementary
and Secondary Education Act. Provides a model of how characteristics
of effective schools relate to assessment practices. Addresses
issues related to program context, program implementation, and
Duran, R. "Assessment and Instruction of At-Risk
Hispanic Students." Exceptional Children (Vol. 56,
#2, pp. 154-8, 1989a)* [this whole issue deals with bilingual
education and assessment].
Summarizes existing problems of standardized tests when used
with Hispanic students. Focuses on linguistic bias, discrepancy
between language skills assessed in standardized tests versus
natural communicative activities, and lack of instructional validity
of standardized tests. Describes two alternatives, "assisted
performance" and "dynamic assessment."
Duran, R. "Testing of Linguistic Minorities."
In R. Linn (Ed.), Educational Measurement, Third Edition
(New York: Macmillan, 1989b, pp. 573-587).
Gives overview of major issues and progress made in the following
areas of the assessment of linguistic minorities: language proficiency
assessment, cognitive assessment, assessment of school achievement,
special education assessment, and assessment for college admissions.
Mentions cultural and socioeconomic influences on thinking and
Duran, R. "Testing of Hispanic Students: Implication
for Secondary Education." (Santa Barbara, CA: Linguistic
Minority Research Project and Graduate School of Education, University
of California, Santa Barbara, 1988).
Presents evidence of the problem of testing Hispanics for
tracking purposes. Defines implications of tracking, discusses
factors influencing Hispanic test performance, and presents Hispanic
educational achievement data, including state mandated testing
program data. Emphasizes misdiagnosis of Hispanics for special
education based on intelligence test scores and describes an
alternative, "dynamic assessment."
ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children,
Assessing the Language Difficulties of Hispanic Bilingual Students
(ERIC Abstract #23, August 1989).*
Summarizes problems of using standardized tests with bilingual
students, with emphasis on inability of most tests to differentiate
between behaviors associated with normal second language acquisition
and those related to language pathology. Discusses difficulty
of accurately assessing language dominance, the language in which
a bilingual student is most proficient.
Estrin, E. T. "Alternative Assessment: Issues in
Language, Culture, and Equity."Knowledge Brief, #11
(San Francisco: Far West Laboratory, 1993).
Summary of many important issues in the current assessment
reform movement. Provides information for considering equity
issues. Notes that all assessment presumes cultural experiences
and values. Recommends portfolio and performance assessments
in the multilingual or multicultural classroom, but cautions
that such assessment may not be compatible with social experiences
and community practices for some students.
Figueroa, R. A. "Best Practices in the Assessment
of Bilingual Children." In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.),
Best Practices in School Psychology (Washington,
DC: National Association of School Psychologists, 1990, pp. 93-106).
Reviews historical and contemporary issues relevant to testing
bilingual students. Critiques and reviews practices in the measurement
of intelligence with bilingual children. Concludes that assessment
takes longer for bilingual than for monolingual children and
relies more on observation and judgment by the evaluator.
Figueroa, R.A. "Psychological Testing of Linguistic-Minority
Students: Knowledge Gaps and Regulations." Exceptional
Children (Vol. 56, #2, pp. 145-52, 1989) [this whole issue
deals with bilingual education and assessment].
Takes position that no one knows when a child whose primary
language is not English is ready to be tested only in English.
Discusses research dealing with acquisition of academic English
proficiency and effects of bilingualism on mental processing.
Makes case that these factors are not adequately considered when
testing bilingual students.
Figueroa, R.A. "Test Bias and Hispanic Children."
Journal of Special Education (Vol. 3, #4, pp. 431-40, 1983).
Examines issue of cultural bias in the testing of Hispanic
children; criticizes existing models for examining bias in psychometric
tests; and cites problem of misdiagnosis of Hispanics as mentally
retarded based on low school-based test scores.
First, J.M. & Willshire Carrera, J. New Voices:
Immigrant Students in U.S. Public Schools (Boston: National
Coalition of Advocates for Students, 1988).
Discusses assessment and placement of bilingual students and
danger of high-stakes standardized testing. Presents reasons
why immigrant students fluent in English do not score as well
on standardized tests as do native English-speaking students.
Includes comments by teachers, researchers, attorneys, parents,
and others who have witnessed the effects of testing. Also describes:
use of test scores as accountability measures, politics surrounding
test performance, tracking and low expectations of immigrant
students by school personnel, and retention or inappropriate
placement of students.
Focus on Evaluation and Measurement. Proceedings of the
Second National Research Symposium on Limited English Proficient
Student Issues (Washington, DC: U.S. Department
of Education, Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages
Affairs, 1992, 2 Vols.).*
Compilation of papers from the Second National Research Conference
sponsored by the Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages
Affairs. Documents focus on the role of assessment in relation
to accountability and program improvement at the federal, state,
and local levels. Authors believe that the core of the school
reform movement is the dissemination of innovations in evaluation
and measurement. Papers by Damico, French, Ortiz, Canales, and
Geisinger are listed individually in this bibliography.
French, R. "Portfolio Assessment and LEP Students."
In Focus on Evaluation (Volume 1, 1992) [see above].
Presents arguments for alternative forms of assessment. Recommends
the use of portfolio assessment in the evaluation of LEP** students.
Argues for alternative assessments which show what LEP students
know and are able to do. Concerned with validity and reliability
in assessments used to evaluate bilingual students.
Gándara, P. & Merin, B. "Measuring the
Outcomes of LEP** Programs: Test Scores, Exit Rates, and Other
Mythological Data." Educational Evaluation and Policy
Analysis (Vol. 15, #3, Fall 1993).
Studies use of test data, reclassification, and exit rates
of LEP students as means of determining rate of academic progress
and second language acquisition for different types of students
with LEP. Finds tests inadequate for policy needs. Recommends
a national definition of LEP, an ongoing authentic evaluation
of each child's academic progress, and a national effort to develop
and identify some assessments in language proficiency and academic
achievement for program comparisons.
Geisinger, K. F. "Testing Limited English Proficient
Students for Minimum Competency and High School Graduation."
In Focus on Evaluation (Volume 2, 1992) [see
Explains that states have no consistent procedure to assess
LEP** students on statewide or district-level minimum competency
examinations. Claims most statewide competency tests measure
cumulative knowledge, and therefore, are not helpful in diagnosis
and instruction.. Argues that competency tests should be useful
in improving the education of LEP students and ought to be tied
to the curriculum. Suggests examiners be trained to test LEP
students and to consider language skills, acculturation, and
socioeconomic factors in assessing an individual's level of functioning.
Geisinger, K. F. (Ed.), Psychological Testing of
Hispanics (Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association,
Book based on a conference. Focuses on the proper use of tests
with Hispanics. Contains four parts : Part One considers technical,
social, legal and other broad issues. Part Two, on educational
assessment, addresses test bias, higher education admission,
and alternative assessments of individual learning. Part Three
examines testing for employment purposes, while Part Four considers
assessment of acculturation and clinical assessment issues.
Gónzalez, V., Bauerle, P., & Félix-Holt,
M. "Assessment of Language-Minority Students." NABE
News (June 15, 1994, pp.13-15).
Summarizes how to assess language minority students better,
based on the National Association of Bilingual Education's 1994
Conference. Proposes six theses for assessment with bilingual
children: testing in two languages; assessing using familiar,
daily-life experiences in the assessment items; individualizing
assessment; using multiple measurement; taking into consideration
the evaluator's background; and using verbal and non-verbal assessment
Harris Stefanakis, E. Whose Judgment Counts?: Assessing
Bilingual Children, K-3 (Heinemann, 1998).
This book provides teachers with the skills needed to make
informed assessments of bilingual children - examining social,
cultural, and language issues first, then focusing on learning.
It's stories convey the intricacies of classroom assessment and
provide real-life examples of what effective teachers know about
assessing young children.
Hembree, R. "Correlates, Causes, Effects, and Treatment
of Test Anxiety." Review of Educational Research (Vol.
58, #1, Spring 1988).
This meta-analysis of 562 studies shows that test anxiety
causes poor performance and that students with high test anxiety
hold themselves in lower esteem than do those who are less test
anxious. The aptitudes of individual test-anxious students are
consistently misinterpreted and undervalued. It was found that
Hispanics have higher test anxiety than whites at all ages.
Hilliard, A.G. "Ideology of IQ." In A. G.
Hilliard (Ed.), Testing African American Students (Morristown,
NJ: Aaron Press, 1991, pp. 136-145) [reprint of Negro Educational
Review, Vol. 38, #2-3, April-July 1987].
Presents view that IQ tests are not only culturally and linguistically
biased and misused for diagnosis, prediction, and classification,
but are inherently inadequate and useless in education.
Hoover, M.R., Politzer, R.L., & Taylor, O. "Bias
in Reading Tests for Black Language Speakers: A Sociolinguistic
Perspective." (In Hilliard, see above, pp. 81-98).
Details language-related bias in standardized tests against
speakers of non-standard English, including phonological (sound),
syntactical (structural), and lexical (word choice and vocabulary)
biases. Consequences of bias include school program misplacement
and tracking resulting in inadequate education for students who
are not white middle- to upper-class. Eliminating these biases
is important for reducing educational and societal biases against
working class and minority children.
Keller, G.D., Deneen, J.R., & Magallan, R.J. Assessment
and Access: Hispanics in Higher Education (Albany: State University
of New York Press, 1991).
Collection of papers discussing various issues in testing
Hispanics for access to higher education and some programs developed
to deal with these issues. Topics include cultural and linguistic
bias, differential functioning of test items, and alternative
types of assessment.
Lacelle-Peterson, M. W. & Rivera, C. "Is It
Real for All Kids? A Framework for Equitable Assessment Policies
for English Language Learners." Harvard Educational Review
(Vol. 64, #1, Spring 1994, pp. 55-73).
Discusses the pros and cons of testing students with instruments
not validated for them. Argues that the type of assessment reform
suggested for monolinguals may not be the type of reform which
appropriately assesses English language learners (ELLs). Provides
caution on performance assessment, such as paying attention to
the role of language in the scoring criteria. Recommends bilingual
programs that provide opportunity for ELLs to become biliterate.
Lam, T.C.M. & Gordon, W.I. "State Policies
for Standardized Achievement Testing of Limited English Proficient
Students." Education Measurement: Issues and Practice
(Winter 1992, pp. 18-20).
Analysis of survey shows lack of state policies and guidelines
on testing students with LEP,** which probably introduces bias
in testing these students. Students are often inappropriately
tested. Finds little test data on appropriateness of tests for
students with LEP. Recommends further research and the development
Lupi, M.H. & Woo, J. "Issues in the Assessment
of East Asian Handicapped Students." Diagnostique
(Vol. 14, #3, pp. 147-58, 1989).
Discusses linguistic and cultural bias issues, and the cultural
similarities and differences that are important for evaluators
to consider when testing East Asian students. Reviews tests commonly
used with this population.
Mestre, J.P. & Royer, J.M. "Cultural and Linguistic
Influences on Latino Testing." In G. Keller, J. Deneen, &
R. Magallan (Eds.), Advances in Assessment and Their Application
to Latino College Students Access (Stony Brook, NY: State
University of New York Press, 1988).
Discusses ways in which culture and language proficiency affect
cognitive performance. Describes the adverse effects of culturally
unfamiliar material on minorities' test scores and learning,
and mentions low socioeconomic status as an additional factor
to consider. Proposes an assessment procedure for students acquiring
a second language, called the Sentence Verification Technique.
Describes this technique's rationale, scoring and interpretation,
reliability and validity, and use with bilingual students.
Moya, S. S. & O'Malley, J. M. "A Portfolio
Assessment Model for ESL." The Journal of Educational
Issues of Language Minority Students (Vol. 13, Spring 1994,
Initiates guidelines for use of portfolio assessment with
LEP** students in elementary and secondary settings. Provides
a rationale for portfolios and includes a portfolio assessment
model for English as a Second Language (ESL) classes.
Navarrete, C., Wilde, J., Nelson, C., Martinez, R., &
Hargett, G. Informal Assessment in Educational Evaluation:
Implications for Bilingual Education Programs (National Clearinghouse
for Bilingual Education, Summer 1990, 24 pages).*
Presents concerns with standardized testing in bilingual education
programs and offers informal assessment techniques as an alternative.
Defines informal assessment, describes examples of both structured
and unstructured informal assessment, and explains various scoring
methods for these assessments. Gives guidelines for using portfolios
in bilingual education programs.
Nutall, E.V., Landurand, P.M., & Goldman, S.R. "A
Critical Look at Testing and Evaluation from a Cross-Cultural
Perspective." In P. Chinn (Ed.), Education of Culturally
and Linguistically Different Exceptional Children (ERIC Clearinghouse
on Handicapped and Gifted Children, #P292, 1984).*
Describes problem of distinguishing an educational disability
from a cultural or linguistic difference. Reviews legislation
in this area. Defines "nondiscriminatory assessment,"
presents methods for reducing biases, and lists common assessment
O'Connor, M.C. "Aspects of Differential Performance
by Minorities on Standardized Tests: Linguistic and Sociocultural
Factors." In B.R. Gifford (Ed.), Test Policy and Test
Performance: Education, Language, and Culture (Norwell, MA:
Comprehensive review of existing literature and research perspectives
on standardized tests. Discusses policy issues, problems with
test translations, linguistic and cultural bias in items, and
sociocultural influences on test- taking.Book has chapters dealing
with assessment of minorities in higher education and employment.
Oller, J. W. & Damico, J. S. "Limiting Bias
in the Assessment of Bilingual Children." In Hamayan, E.
V., & Damico, J.S. (Eds.), Theoretical Considerations in
the Assessment of LEP Students (Austin, TX: Proeditions, 1991,
Proposes a theory of language proficiency based on the work
of C.S. Peirce, which entails assessment of language learners
based on observational behaviors. Claims that performance assessment
of language minority students should actually target and evaluate
true linguistic performance, requiring detailed empirical study.
Suggests a more descriptive, individualized performance assessment
approach allows for authentic behaviors.
Olmedo, E. "Testing Linguistic Minorities."
American Psychologist (Vol. 36, #10, pp. 1078-85, 1981).
Points to a number of factors that must be recognized when
testing linguistic minorities: social, economic, and political
realities facing these groups, and linguistic and cultural factors.
Describes the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment
(SOMPA) as an alternative to standardized testing. Reviews test
translation, assessment of language dominance, and examiner variables.
Ortiz, A. "Assessing Appropriate and Inappropriate
Referral Systems for LEP Special Education Students." In
Focus on Evaluation (Volume 1, 1992) [see above].
Explains implications of lack of educational progress by Hispanics
and other language minority students for special services, which
results in the over-representation of LEP** students in programs
for learning disabled. Discusses referral and prereferral testing
process. Suggests how these might be made more effective for
LEP students in the regular classroom and in collaborative school-community
Pennock-Roman, M. The Status of Research on the Scholastic
Aptitude Test and Hispanic Students in Postsecondary Education
(Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ 08541, 1988).
Reviews research on differences between Hispanic and Anglo
groups on the SAT. Discusses factors associated with mean group
differences on the SAT, item formats and content that produce
differential performance for the two groups, predictive validity
of admissions tests such as the SAT for Hispanic college students,
and differential access to test preparation for the two groups.
Author believes the largest barrier for access to college for
Hispanics is inadequate guidance and lack of resources due to
lower socioeconomic status and uneducated parents.
Pennock-Roman, M. "New Directions for Research
on Spanish-Language Tests and Test-Item Bias." In M. A. Olivas,
M.A. (Ed.), Latino College Students (New York: Teachers'
College Press, 1986).
Discusses test content issues for Hispanics, including inadequacies
of culture-free and culture-specific tests and of tests translated
from English to Spanish. Summarizes research on two Spanish achievement
tests (The Prueba de Aptitud Academica and The Prueba de Admision
para Estudios Graduados). Presents methods for detecting item
discrepancy, bias and unfairness, and summarizes research in
Royer, J.M. & Carlo, M.S. "Assessing the Language
Acquisition Progress of Limited English Proficient Students: Problems
and a New Alternative." Applied Measurement in Education
(Vol. 4, #2, pp. 85-113, 1991).
Reviews cultural and linguistic influences on test performance
and describes current procedures used with bilingual students.
Stresses need for new types of tests and describes the Sentence
Verification Technique (SVT). Presents methods and results of
a study using SVT, with discussion of its possible uses in transitional
bilingual education programs.
Schmitt, A.P. "Language and Cultural Characteristics
That Explain Differential Item Functioning for Hispanic Examinees
on the Scholastic Aptitude Test." Journal of Educational
Measurement (Vol. 25, #1, Spring 1988).
ETS researcher finds that Hispanics perform better on items
about subjects of particular interest to Hispanics, such as a
question about Mexican-American women. They perform better on
true cognates (words that have common roots in the two languages)
and worse on homographs (words that are spelled alike but have
different meanings). Discusses analogy items that disadvantage
Schmitt, A.P. & Dorans, N.J. "Differential
Item Functioning for Minority Examinees on the SAT." (Paper
for the American Psychological Association annual meeting, August,
ETS researchers find that when item content is of special
interest to an ethnic group, members of that group score unexpectedly
well on the item. Speededness is also a factor in blacks' and
Hispanics' lower scores on the SAT. Homographs disadvantage blacks,
Hispanics, and Asian-Americans.
Sosa, A.S. Assessment of Language Minority Students
(San Antonio, TX: Regional Hearing on Education of Hispanics,
U.S. Dept. of Education, April 1990). Obtain from Alicia Salinas
Sosa, Intercultural Development Research Association, 5835 Callaghan,
Suite 350, San Antonio, TX 78228, (512) 684-8180.
Presents evidence of the negative impact of testing on Hispanic
students with emphasis on the thwarting of educational opportunities
and tracking due to the use of tests for labeling, categorization,
and segregation. A vicious cycle of low expectations and fulfillment
of those expectations are perpetuated by existing testing. Concludes
that existing testing procedures clearly contribute to a much
lower quality education than Hispanic students deserve, thus
increasing the drop-out rate for these students. Includes implications
and recommendations for future research.
Sosa, A.S. "Bilingual Education: Heading into the
1990s: The U.S. Perspective." The Journal of Educational
Issues of Language Minority Students (Vol. 10, Special Issue,
Discusses changes in the focus of bilingual education programs
since passage of the Bilingual Education Act of 1968. Points
out differences in students in these programs today from time
act was passed. Identifies current research and program elements
and issues for the 1990s that should be addressed. Covers use
of tests for labeling and sorting and the incidence of retention
due to these test uses.
Sosa, A.S. The Impact of Testing on Hispanics
(Proceedings of a National Hearing co-sponsored by the National
Commission of Testing and Public Policy and the Intercultural
Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX, October, 1988).
Obtain from author at above address.
Excellent compilation of abstracts and written testimony from
the proceedings of a conference on the impact of testing on Hispanics.
Abstracts by Duran (1988) and Pennock-Roman (1988) are cited
in this bibliography. Covers a wide range of subjects regarding
the testing of Hispanics and the implications of such testing.
Taylor, O. & Lee, D.L. "Standardized Tests
and African Americans: Communication and Language Issues."
(In Hilliard, see above, pp. 76-80).
Contains detailed discussion of sources and kinds of cultural
and language bias in standardized tests. These biases cause African-Americans
(particularly working-class blacks) and other minorities to be
invalidly assessed: "At times...the results fail to accurately
represent actual abilities." In conclusion, "...the
very assumptions and paradigms upon which most standardized tests
are based need to be revised."
Traynor, R. "The TOEFL: An Appraisal." ELT
Journal (Vol. 39, pp. 43-47, 1985).
Criticizes Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).
Maintains that TOEFL has low predictive and face validity and
should not be used to predict future success of foreign students
in American schools.
Valdez Pierce, L. Effective Schools for Language
Minority Students (Chevy Chase, MD: The Mid-Atlantic Equity
Center, 1991). Obtain from publisher at 5454 Wisconsin Ave., Suite
1500, Chevy Chase, MD 20815.
Booklet addresses the problem of academic underachievement
of minority students. Discusses practices including state minimum
competency testing, tracking, segregation, and unequal access
Valdez Pierce, L. & O'Malley, J.M. Performance
and Portfolio Assessment for Language Minority Students (National
Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, #9, Spring 1992).
Provides definitions and summary of alternative assessment
and two of its varieties, performance assessment and portfolio
assessment. Details each in terms of purpose, types, design,
administration, and scoring with emphasis on use with language
minority students. Lists common concerns of portfolio assessment
and provides remedies for these concerns.
Valencia, R.R. Chicano School Failure and Success:
Research and Policy Agendas for the 1990's (New York: The
Falmer Press, 1991).
Includes two chapters on testing : "The Uses and Abuses
of Educational Testing," by Richard Valencia and Sofia Aburto
and "An Analysis of Special Education as a Response to the
Diminished Academic Achievement of Chicano Students" by
Robert Rueda. Argues that Chicanos face the following school
problems: segregation, curriculum differences, and disparities
in school financing, resulting in their low test performance.
Suggests special education unresponsive to needs of Chicano students
because of reliance on a medical model rather than on a model
of cultural and linguistic diversities as learning factors.
Valencia, R.R., Henderson, D.W., & Rankin, R.J. "Relationship
of Family Constellation and Schooling to Intellectual Performance
of Mexican American Children." Journal of Educational
Measurement (Vol. 73, pp. 524-32, 1981).
Study looks at effects on intelligence test scores of factors
such as birth order, family size, and spacing between siblings.
Authors hypothesize that cultural background of Mexican-American
children in which large families are valued depresses mental
test performance. Results indicate that the most powerful predictor
of mental performance is a language/schooling factor and that
relationship between family size and mental test performance
is better explained as a function of socioeconomic status.
Valencia, R.R. & Rankin, R.J. "Evidence of
Content Bias on the McCarthy Scales with Mexican American Children:
Implications for Test Translation and Nonbiased Assessment."
Journal of Educational Psychology (Vol. 77, #2, pp. 197-207,
Finds content bias in the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities
(MSCA), believed due to language of the test. Proposed reasons
for this bias are discussed, as well as implications concerning
test translation, issue of equivalence, and nonbiased assessment.
Briefly mentions sociocultural and familial variables as factors
in test performance. Note: this article deals only with MSCA,
but issues are relevant for other tests.
Vraniak, D. "Mental Abilities of American Indians
and Alaska Natives: An Analysis of the Existing Knowledge-Base
1896-1992." (Paper submitted for publication, 1991). Obtain
from University of Wisconsin-Madison, Mental Health Research Center,
Room 2409 Social Science Bldg., 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison,
Analyzes over 380 research papers and reports concerning the
use and effectiveness of ability tests with American Indians
and summarizes their findings. Concludes that cumulative results
of existing research is negligible. Presents future research
Woo, J.Y.T. "How to Develop Tests for Chinese Students
in the United States." (New York: Department of Special Education,
Hunter College of City University of New York, 1991).
Presents guidelines for developing psychological, language
proficiency and achievement tests in Chinese. Strongly emphasizes
that common theories and terms used in English-language assessments
often do not translate into Chinese. Stresses differences among
dialects and the absence of formal written language in some Chinese
dialects. See also "Handbook on the Assessment of East Asian
Students" by the same author which examines problems with
tests in more detail and includes many examples from current
tests; available from Hunter College only to persons qualified
to use educational and psychological tests.
Zwick, R. & Ercikan, K. "Analysis of Differential
Item Functioning in the NAEP History Assessment." Journal
of Educational Measurement (Vol. 26, #1, Spring 1989).
In study demonstrating the relevance of item context to test
performance, finds that after matching groups by final test score
on the National Assessment of Educational Progress test, Hispanics
performed better that whites on items about immigration, the
Mexican War, President Lincoln, and the Emancipation Proclamation.
Findings on other groups also given.
RESOURCE LIST ON LANGUAGE MINORITY ASSESSMENT
Center for Applied Linguistics
1118 22nd Street N.W.
Washington, DC 20037
This center is concerned with issues of educational equity
and advocates for educational excellence for all students.
ERIC Clearinghouse Directory
1600 Research Blvd.
Rockville, MD 20850
ERIC is the largest computerized education information system
in the world. The ERIC database includes 16 subject-specific clearinghouses;
several adjunct clearinghouses include The National Clearinghouse
on Urban and Minority Education and The ERIC Clearinghouse on
Assessment and Evaluation.
Evaluation Assistance Center East
George Washington University
1730 N. Lynn Street
Arlington, VA 22209
703-528-3588 or 800-925-EACE
One of two federally funded centers that provide technical
assistance to school districts serving English language learners.
Clients include projects funded under Title VII and other K-12
schools that serve students learning English as a second language.
The EAC East identifies appropriate systems to assess student
language proficiency and academic achievement. The Center also
develops frameworks and selects or creates resources to conduct
program evaluations that meet federal requirements.
Evaluation Assistance Center West
University of New Mexico
121 Tijeras N.E.
Alburquerque, NM 87102
The purpose of this federally-funded EAC is "to provide
technical assistance regarding methods and techniques for identifying
the educational needs and competencies of limited English proficient
persons and assessing the educational progress achieved through
Title VII programs." EAC West publishes a newsletter about
Title VII issues.
Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA)
San Antonio, TX 78228
An educational advocacy organization which works with language
minority students. Includes assessment issues among its concerns.
See works by Sosa in bibliography.
National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE)
1220 L Street N.W., Suite 605
Washington, DC 20005
A national, non-profit membership professional and advocacy
association, addressing needs of language minority Americans.
Members include parents, early childhood educators, elementary
and secondary school teachers and administrators, college professors,
graduate students, and university researchers. NABE News,
the association's newsletter, is published eight times a year.
The Bilingual Research Journal is published three times
a year. NABE members also receive occasional papers addressing
particular aspects of bilingual education. Holds annual conference.
National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second
University of California, Santa Cruz
Bilingual Research Group
399 Clark Kerr Hall
Santa Cruz, CA 95064
A research-oriented organization. Publishes a newsletter.
National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCBE)
1118 22nd Street N.W.
Washington, DC 20037
800-321-6223 or 202-467-0867
A federally-funded information service. Clients include ESL
and bilingual education teachers, principals, librarians, researchers,
professors, school counselors, parents, and others involved in
the education of limited English proficient students. NCBE is
a computerized information system, including bibliographic, resources,
and publishers databases, and NCBE Newsline, featuring OBEMLA
announcements. Publications include Focus Occasional Paper
Series and Program Information Guide Series.
Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs
Switzer Building, Room 5086
400 Maryland Avenue S.W.
Washington, DC 20202
Office administers Title VII/Bilingual Education grants for
research with respect to the education of language minority students;
part of U.S. Department of Education.
SELECTED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON
LANGUAGE MINORITY ASSESSMENT
Entries Relate to the Following Topics
THE FOLLOWING COVER A COMBINATION OF MOST OR ALL OF THE
TOPICS BELOW: Duran (1989b); Keller, Deneen & Magallan;
Geisinger (1992b); Nuttal, et al.; O'Connor; Olmedo; Sosa
AFRICAN AMERICANS, ASSESSMENT OF: Hilliard; Hoover,
et al.; Taylor & Lee.
ALTERNATIVES: Ascher (1991, 1990); Bilingual Education
Office; California Learning Record; Canales; Cheng; Damico; Duran
(1989a, 1988); Estrin; Focus on Evaluation and Measurement;
French; Gándara & Merin; Gónzalez et al.;
Lacelle-Peterson & Rivera; Mestre & Royer; Moya &
O'Malley; Navarrete, et al.; Oller & Damico; Royer
& Carlo; Valdez Pierce & O'Malley.
AMERICAN INDIANS, ASSESSMENT OF: Chavers & Locke;
ASIANS, ASSESSMENT OF: Cheng; Lupi & Woo; Schmitt
& Dorans; Woo.
CULTURAL BIAS: Ascher (1991); Carpenter; Cummins; Duran
(1988); Figueroa (1983, 1990); First & Carrera; Hembree; Lupi
& Woo; Mestre & Royer; Oller & Damico; Pennock-Roman
(1986); Royer & Carlo; Taylor & Lee; Valencia; Valencia,
et al.; Zwick.
EFFECTS OF REQUIRING LANGUAGE MINORITIES TO TAKE TESTS IN
ENGLISH: Baca & Cervantes; Duran (1989a); Figueroa; First
& Carrera; Sosa (1992).
HIGHER EDUCATION ADMISSION: Hembree; Pennock-Roman (1988);
Schmitt (1988, 1987); Traynor.
HISPANICS, ASSESSMENT OF: Most of the pieces focus on
assessment of Hispanics unless noted.
IQ AND ABILITY TESTS: Duran (1988); Figueroa (1990);
Geisinger (1992a); Hilliard; Lacelle-Peterson & Rivera; Mestre
& Royer; Oller & Damico; Olmedo; Valencia, et al.;
Valencia & Rankin.
LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY TESTS: Baca & Cervantes; Carpenter;
Cummins; ERIC; Figueroa (1989); Royer & Carlo; Sosa (1992);
LINGUISTIC BIAS: Ascher (1991, 1990); Carpenter; Cummins;
Duran (1989a, 1988); ERIC; Hoover, et al.; Lupi & Woo;
Mestre & Royer; Pennock-Roman (1986); Royer & Carlo; Taylor
& Lee; Valencia, et al.; Valencia & Rankin.
POLICY/LEGISLATION: Baker & Rossell; Bilingual Education
Office; Canales; Carpenter; Clements; DelVeechio, et al.;
Duran (1988); Estrin; First & Carrera; Focus on Evaluation
and Measurement; Gándara & Merin; Geisinger (1992a);
Lacelle-Peterson & Rivera; Lam & Gordon; Sosa (1992).
SPECIAL EDUCATION: Ascher (1990); Baker & Rossell;
Bilingual Special Education Perspective; Cummins; Duran
(1988); ERIC; Figueroa (1983); First & Carrera; Ortiz; Sosa
TESTS IN COMMON USE: Carpenter; Lupi & Woo.
TRACKING/EXPECTATIONS: Baker & Rossell; Cummins;
Duran (1988); First & Carrera; Hoover, et al.; Sosa
(1990a, 1992); Valdez Pierce.
TRANSLATION OF TESTS: Ascher (1991); Pennock-Roman (1986);
Valencia & Rankin.
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